Hawthorne is a city in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, located in southwestern Los Angeles County, California. It is part of a seventeen-city region commonly called the South Bay. As of the 2020 US census, Hawthorne had a population of 88,083.
Hawthorne was once part of the Rancho Sausal Redondo (Round Willow-grove Ranch) of the 22,458-acre (91 km) Mexican land grant in present day Los Angeles County, California given in 1837 to Antonio Ygnacio Ávila by Juan Alvarado the Mexican Governments Governor of Alta California. Rancho Sausal Redondo covered the area that now includes Playa Del Rey, El Segundo, Manhattan Beach, Lawndale, Hermosa Beach, Inglewood, Hawthorne, and Redondo Beach.
Hawthorne was founded in 1905 as the "Hawthorne Improvement Company" by real estate developers B.L. Harding and H.D. Lombard. Harding's daughter shared her birthday—the 4th of July, American Independence Day—with New England author Nathaniel Hawthorne, and a decision was made to name the small village after him.
Hawthorne was once a "whites only" settlement, commonly called a sundown town. During the 1930s, signs warned African-Americans to be out of Hawthorne by sundown.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 6.1 square miles (16 km), over 99% of it land.
To the north of Hawthorne is the unincorporated community of Lennox and the city of Inglewood. To the east is the unincorporated community of Athens and the city of Gardena. To the south is the unincorporated community of El Camino Village, and the cities of Lawndale and Redondo Beach. Manhattan Beach is at the southwest corner of Hawthorne. To the west is the city of El Segundo, and the Los Angeles neighborhood of Westchester is to the northwest of Hawthorne. Hawthorne surrounds the unincorporated community of Del Aire on three sides.
The Century Freeway (Glenn Anderson Freeway, I-105) runs along the northern boundary of Hawthorne, with the C Line light rail line running down the center of the Century Freeway. The San Diego Freeway (I-405) runs along the western boundary of Hawthorne. Major east–west streets in Hawthorne include Rosecrans Avenue, El Segundo Boulevard, and Imperial Highway. Major north–south streets include Aviation Boulevard, Inglewood Avenue, Hawthorne Boulevard, Prairie Avenue, Crenshaw Boulevard, and Van Ness Avenue.
Hawthorne is five miles (8 km) from the Los Angeles International Airport.
Hawthorne comprises ZIP codes 90250 and 90251. It is in the 310 area code, except for a small portion of northeastern Hawthorne, which is located in the 323 area code.
Hawthorne, like the rest of the Los Angeles basin, has a Mediterranean climate:
Hawthorne has a Mediterranean climate or dry-summer subtropical (Köppen climate classification Csb on the coast, Csa inland), enjoying plenty of sunshine throughout the year, with an average of 263 sunshine days and only 35 days with measurable precipitation annually.
The period of April through November is warm to hot and dry with average high temperatures of 71–79 °F (22–26 °C) and lows of 50–62 °F (10–17 °C). Due to the moderating effect of the ocean, temperatures are cooler than more inland areas of Los Angeles, where temperatures frequently exceed 90 °F (32 °C) and occasionally reach 100 °F (38 °C).
The Los Angeles area is also subject to the phenomena typical of a microclimate. As such, the temperatures can vary as much as 18 °F (10 °C) between inland areas and the coast, with a temperature gradient of over one degree per mile (1.6 km) from the coast inland. California has also a weather phenomenon called "June Gloom or May Grey", which sometimes brings overcast or foggy skies in the morning at the coast, but usually gives way to sunny skies by noon, during late spring and early summer.
The Los Angeles region averages 15 inches (385 mm) of precipitation annually, which mainly occurs during the winter and spring (November through April) with generally light rain showers, but sometimes as heavy rainfall and thunderstorms. On November 6, 1966, the first-ever documented tornado touched down within city limits. It caused significant damage, running for about one-half mile (0.80 km), from 132nd Street and Ramona Avenue to 140th Street and Ramona Avenue. Snowfall is extremely rare but not impossible in the city basin.
At the 2010 census Hawthorne had a population of 84,293. The population density was 13,835.7 inhabitants per square mile (5,342.0/km). The racial makeup of Hawthorne was 27,678 (32.8%) White (10.3% Non-Hispanic White), 23,385 (27.7%) African American, 565 (0.7%) Native American, 5,642 (6.7%) Asian, 974 (1.2%) Pacific Islander, 22,127 (26.3%) from other races, and 3,922 (4.7%) from two or more races. There were 44,572 people of Hispanic or Latino origin, of any race (52.9%).
The census reported that 83,754 people (99.4% of the population) lived in households, 208 (0.2%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 331 (0.4%) were institutionalized.
There were 28,486 households, 12,330 (43.3%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 10,833 (38.0%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 6,369 (22.4%) had a female householder with no husband present, 2,357 (8.3%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 2,309 (8.1%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 191 (0.7%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. Of the households, 7,125 (25.0%) were one person and 1,430 (5.0%) had someone living alone who was 65 or older. The average household size was 2.94. There were 19,559 families (68.7% of households); the average family size was 3.54.
The age distribution was 23,157 people (27.5%) under the age of 18, 9,487 people (11.3%) aged 18 to 24, 27,035 people (32.1%) aged 25 to 44, 18,395 people (21.8%) aged 45 to 64, and 6,219 people (7.4%) who were 65 or older. The median age was 31.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.6 males.
There were 29,869 housing units at an average density of 4,902.7 per square mile, of the occupied units 7,623 (26.8%) were owner-occupied and 20,863 (73.2%) were rented. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.5%; the rental vacancy rate was 4.6%. 25,869 people (30.7% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 57,885 people (68.7%) lived in rental housing units.
During 2009–2013, Hawthorne had a median household income of $44,649, with 19.2% of the population living below the federal poverty line.
As of the census of 2000, there were 84,112 people in 28,536 households, including 19,775 families, in the city. The population density was 13,879.4 inhabitants per square mile (5,358.9/km2). There were 29,629 housing units at an average density of 4,889.1 per square mile (1,887.7/km). The racial makeup of the city was 29.3% White, 39.0% Black or African American, 0.8% Native American, 7.7% Asian, 0.9% Pacific Islander, 24.2% from other races, and 5.2% from two or more races. 44.3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 28,536 households, 43.7% included children under the age of 18, 38.6% were married couples living together, 23.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.7% were non-families. Of all households 24.5% were one person and 4.5% were one person aged 65 or older. The average household size was 2.93 and the average family size was 3.50.
The age distribution was 31.7% under the age of 18, 11.3% from 18 to 24, 34.9% from 25 to 44, 16.1% from 45 to 64, and 6.1% 65 or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.3 males.
The median household income was $31,887 and the median family income was $35,149. Males had a median income of $29,481 versus $27,427 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,022. About 18.4% of families and 20.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.6% of those under age 18 and 9.0% of those age 65 or over.
Mexican (27.1%) and Filipino (2.6%) are the most common ancestries in the city. Mexico (45.1%) and Guatemala (9.3%) are the most common foreign places of birth in the city.
In 2022, Los Angeles Homeless Services Authority's Greater Los Angeles Homeless Count counted 173 homeless individuals in Hawthorne.
As of 2022 the city is known as a center for the space industry and hosts numerous space related private companies, industries and startups. The relatively large number of aerospace engineers and technicians, history of established aerospace companies, and the presence of SpaceX has facilitated the development of space engineering industry cluster in the city. According to the city's 2021 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are:
Besides the current top employers, the following businesses are currently located in Hawthorne:
Previously in Hawthorne:
Hawthorne has an elected city council composed of a mayor elected every four years and four city council members elected on four year terms.
According to the city's most recent "Comprehensive Annual Financial Report," its various funds had $126.1 million in revenues, $113.2 million in expenditures, $220.2 million in total assets, $152.7 million in total liabilities, and $29.6 million in cash and investments.
The structure of the management and coordination of city services is: The city manager is Vontray Norris.
In the California State Legislature, Hawthorne is in the 35th Senate District, represented by Democrat Steven Bradford, and in the 62nd Assembly District, represented by Democrat Anthony Rendon.
In the United States House of Representatives, Hawthorne is in California's 43rd congressional district, represented by Democrat Maxine Waters.
Hawthorne is served by multiple school districts.
In addition Los Angeles County Office of Education operates Southwest Day (5th-12th grade).
Hawthorne Math and Science Academy is a charter high school in Hawthorne associated with the Hawthorne School District.
The Hawthorne Press Tribune is the community newspaper for the City of Hawthorne.
The Los Angeles County Department of Health Services operates the Curtis Tucker Health Center in Inglewood, serving Hawthorne.
The United States Postal Service Hawthorne Post Office is located at 12700 Inglewood Avenue.